The term ‘Braking’ in a moving vehicle means the application of the brakes to reduce its speed or stop its movement, usually by depressing a pedal. The braking distance is the distance between the time the brakes are applied and the time the vehicle comes to a complete stop.
In braking systems on conventional vehicles, friction is used to counteract the forward momentum of a moving vehicle. As the brake pads rub against the wheels or a disc that is connected to the axles, excessive heat energy is created. This heat energy dissipates into the air, wasting as much as 30 percent of the vehicle's generated power. Over time, this cycle of friction and wasted heat energy reduces the vehicle's fuel efficiency. More energy from the engine is required to replace the energy that was lost by braking.
REGENERATIVE BRAKING SYSTEMS IN AUTOMOBILES
Every time we step on our car's brakes, we are actually wasting energy. As we know that energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. It can be just converted from one form to another. So when our car slows down, the kinetic energy that was propelling it in the forward direction has to go somewhere. Most of it simply gets released in the form of heat and becomes useless. That energy, which could have been used to do work, is essentially wasted. The solution for this kind of this problem is Regenerative Braking System.
This is a new type of braking system that can recollect much of the car's kinetic energy and convert it into electrical energy or mechanical energy. Regenerative braking is one of the emerging technologies of automotive industry which can prove to be very beneficent. Using regenerative braking system in a vehicle not only results in the recovery of the energy but it also increases the efficiency of vehicle (in case of hybrid vehicles) and saves energy, which is stored in the auxiliary battery.